What should I eat?

This is the most controversial question ever asked!

Traditional cultures use to know what to eat and we used to know what to eat – we would eat what our parents ate, what their parents ate…..so on and on.

This way of eating was based on years of traditional eating, passed down through trial and error of what allowed the longest most robust lives for our ancestors.

It was seasonal and regional – what we could grow in their own backyard, what they had access to, directed by the climate and various conditions, with no waste.

Let’s fast forward to 2019 – we now transport our foods around the world in under 24 hours far from their places of origin and we have less understanding of what our grandparents or great-grand parents where eating.

We have lost a lot of the knowledge and understanding of what our traditional foods were. Modern food processing has also changed the foods we put in our mouths so often it doesn’t even look much like what it started off as and is certainly of questionable nutrient quality.

Food absolutely effects health and these sort of changes happened before our understanding of these critical effects were known.

Which Diet Then?

Here’s a recent personal example of the reality of what we are all faced with –

Just the other night we were watching the TV and the local media ran a story saying that “It’s ok to eat salt every day” and my husband looked at me laughing out loud and said “that’s good hon, we don’t need to hide the salt anymore!”

So it’s crazy trying to work out what we should be eating in the face of so much controversy around what is “healthy”.

Should it be a free for all and you eat whatever you like?

Maybe it should be Paleo, vegetarian, vegan, ketogenic, low FODMAP, SCD, high fat, low fat, high carbohydrate, low carbohydrate………aaahhhh!

You just can’t decide!

Here are our 4 Most Important Things You Should Consider When Choosing a Diet.

1) What can you cope with – What can you manage, where is your head space! What can you do and what can’t you do or what are you willing to do and what are you not willing to do? What can you cope with? How many people are you responsible for? What is your work load like? A mother with young children has different things to consider compared to a single person without these type of responsibilities for others. Education and training goes a long way to help and support the needed changes but initially these are essential considerations.

 2) What are your symptoms and what is your context – The next really important question is what symptoms do you have and what else is going on? Do you have fatigue, eczema, high blood pressure, bloating etc. ? These sorts of things direct the type of food you eat, the timing and whether the various macro and micro nutrients are required in higher or lower amounts. Symptoms reveal genetic tendencies, such as autoimmunity, immune dysfunction, allergy or cardiovascular risks. Another thing is when your gut isn’t working well it cannot process foods well, this is why some of us are intolerant to even good whole foods! Improved digestion equals improved tolerance with improved nutrient absorption and less deficiencies. Don’t forget your bowels absolutely need to move well and daily as well!

So diet choice can depend on what symptoms you have and what your genetic tendencies are.

3) What do your pathology markers say about youAny diet you are on should be based on you as an individual and that your levels of inflammation, your liver &kidney markers and your insulin levels are optimal. People often say, I’m on an anti-inflammatory diet or a vegetarian diet or a low fat diet but they have constipation or urgency and when we check some of the basic pathology markers they are just NOT normal!. So please check your pathology, you need to know where you are starting from. These are some of the basics:

  • Fasting insulin levels (ideal around 3-5 mmol/L)
  • Inflammatory markers – CRP, ESR and ferritin
  • Nutrient levels – zinc, copper, iron, B12, folate, selenium and iodine
  • Autoimmune markers – ANA (antinuclear antibodies) & thyroid antibodies (TPO/ TG)
  • Know your thyroid levels – not just TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) but T3 and T4 too. Did you know without enough iodine you can’t make T3 and T4!
  • Liver and electrolyte markers
  • Vitamin D and PTH (parathyroid hormone)

Be clear it’s impossible to check everything and mostly just not needed, for instance you wouldn’t check for allergy markers unless you suffer hayfever, asthma, rashes, eczema or have other immune system issues.

If things are not improving even after you move to a good whole food diet and have made other foundational lifestyle changes that would be the time to start thinking about doing more testing to find the root cause of why.

The proof is in the pudding (excuse the pun!) if you have symptoms or pathology markers that are not right then you need to consider your diet as a major driving factor.

These symptoms and pathology markers must also be considered in the context for you as an individual – valid interpretation is very important.

4) What is the quality, quantity and timing of food that is right for you based on the stage of life you are at –Your diet may need to change or evolve over time. What’s right for one stage of your life may not be right for another stage.

Here are some important examples:

  • When you are pregnant or breast feeding you need to eat differently
    • Please no fasting
    • Be more conscious of eating organic foods/additive free foods
    • You may need to eat more regularly and smaller meals as organs get pushed out of the way and impacted by growing bubs
    • Eat some foods higher in iron as the need for this nutrient increases as the pregnancy progresses
    • Eat more fiber & drink more water as pregnancy progresses to avoid constipation – and yes we know fiber doesn’t agree with everyone!
  • If you are under an enormous amounts of stress you need to eat differently – foods higher in b vitamins as need increases with stress and eat foods lower in simple sugars to avoid energy levels going up and down impacting stress even further.
  • Do you have a more active work life to a less active might require more or less foods or more or less whole food carbohydrates. Shift work is important to consider too.

Each stage of our lives and our genetic potential makes us more susceptible to certain things:

  • For post menopausal women your risk of bone issues, Alzheimer’s dementia, other cognitive issues and cardiovascular disease just went up!
  • If your parents have cardiovascular disease (CVD) (heart attacks, strokes and atherosclerosis) your risk for cardiovascular events is higher than your mate!

It’s not just about what you eat, it’s about quantity, quality and timing of food:

  • The less processed foods you eat the better off you will be.
  • When you eat – if you are eating late night it causes a cascade of responses in the body from how blood sugars and cortisol (stress hormones) are managed to how this affects our sleep and how we manage stress – the science is clear – eating 3 hours before bed is better for you even regardless of what you just ate.

Basically all these things can effect what you eat and how you structure your eating.

Please book in for a complementary 15 min consult with one of our NHM team.

Click here and leave a message and we will contact you to arrange your free 15 min consult.

Click here to find out more about the NHM team to help you choose who you would like to talk with.

So Let’s Start Choosing

Sounds complicated right!

Buts it’s not once the above things are considered we can start to choose what diet is right for you.

Here is a basic starting summary of what to eat for certain situations:

Please note – this is not an exhaustive list and having a practitioner look at what your signs and symptoms are may be valuable to work out what is needed for you.

What is Going On in Your Life

Foundational Foods to Consider

Weight Loss, pre-diabetes and diabetes

Consider Low glycaemic foods, lower carbohydrate, non-processed foods or even a ketogenic diet. ‘Intermittent’ fasting were you do not eat for between 12 to 16 hours from the last meal to the first one the following day can also be an effective tool

Hypothyroidism – not associated with autoimmunity

Increase consumption of seafoods & seaweeds for the iodine, brazil nuts for the selenium, oysters and red meat for the zinc & iron.

Note: it’s unlikely you are deficient in all of these so check your pathology markers.


Pregnant or going to be

No fasting, low additives and organic foods when possible, the need for smaller meals, maintain iron, iodine, omega-3 and folate rich food, eat more fiber and drink more water for constipation. No alcohol and caffeine is best too.

Raised inflammation

Wholefoods, minimally process and increase the levels of colourful vegetable that contain high levels of polyphenol compounds and anti-oxidants that reduce the damage caused by inflammation, Foods such as seafood with omega-3 fats EPA and turmeric have important direct anti-inflammatory effects. Yet again fasting or intermittent fasting can reduce inflammation as well.

Sedentary Work

If you stick with nutrient dense whole food that are lower in starches, refined sugars and carbohydrates you will go a long way to stopping cravings, staying slim and having energy all day. Stick with good fats, protein and vegetables. Experiment with a total carbohydrate intake of around 50 – 100g per day for 30 days or even more ( 2 – 4 months) if you are feeling good. If you start to feel a bit off or a desire for more carbs slowly ramp up by 25g per day for a week or 2 and see how you feel. If you feel better add a small amount more. At some point you will notice you no longer feel as good as before this becomes a measure of your maximum carb intake needed.

There is a bit of controversy over the need for carbohydrate intake for optimal thyroid hormone conversion from T4 to T3. You may find increasing carbohydrate consumption as above works best for you or sometimes a small dip is just a short adaption period and no other change is needed.

Active Work or Exercise

This is the time to think about the possible need for greater carbohydrates added to your diet. You can even experiment with cycling greater amounts of carbs (100/ 200/ 300g) 1 or twice a week or after your most intense work or activities. Carbohydrates need to be earned!

Autoimmune marker(s) present

Eat foods that take the load off your gut and support the immune system by healing an over-permeable digestive tract, a so called ‘Leaky Gut’. Foods such as bone broths and more cooked vegetables can help with this. Initially you may need to remove the most common inflammatory food such as dairy, refined sugars and gluten containing grains. You may also need to include the removal of eggs and high fibre foods such as other grains (especially corn), legumes, lentils, nuts, seeds and nightshade vegetables (eggplants, capsicum, tomatoes & potatoes especially for Arthritis types of autoimmunity). Autoimmunity is a bit trickier to handle so you may need the professional help of a trained practitioner.

Under high physical or emotion stress

Foods higher in B vitamins such as organ meats (yes liver!), asparagus, lamb, beef, fish, shellfish, legumes/ beans, nuts, avocado, eggs, broccoli, dairy, sweet potatoes and carrot. The need for B vitamins increases with stress and by eating foods lower in simple sugars you will to avoid energy levels going up and down which can cause further stress. Seafood or vegetarian source of omega-3 and foods high in magnesium, zinc and vitamin C are also needed in higher amounts to support the immune system, inflammation levels and the function of the brain

Gastrointestinal Dysbiosis (SIBO & IBS)

You may need to consider a Paleo or a low FODMAP (fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) or Autoimmune Paleo diet. Looking for gut pathogens and overgrowth in the small intestine can be important and protocols using antimicrobial herbs, probiotics, gut healing nutrients and even elemental diets can be used to kill pathogens and unwanted bacteria and heal the lining of the gut.

Yeast Overgrowth

Low carbohydrate, low glycaemic plus the liberal use of anti-fungal foods such as garlic, ginger, onion, cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves and cayenne pepper.

Coeliac Disease/ Non Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity

Gluten free whole foods. It’s important to also limit the processed gluten free foods. You can join the Coeliac Society for extra info on helpful tips and tricks to follow.

Aches and pains – with no other known cause or as part of another diagnosis.

May need to consider diets that eliminate or reduce one or more of these – glutamates, oxalates, salicylates, metal nickel, nightshades and amines (including histamine).

Chronic Fatigue Eat small meals regularly (at least 5 times per day), ensure that carbs/protein/fats are in every meal, avoid high sugar foods.


Important For All Diets

All diets can be done “badly” or done “well” for example an all meat diet using only processed meats, with animals given the wrong feed, with chemicals added is not going to work too well. A vegan diet based on high sugar foods such as white refined breads and pastas is equally not going to work.

How foods are prepared can change a healthy food into a toxic food, the oils used, the way it is processed, what is added, what is removed all effect what you are left with in the end.

All foods should be cooked and prepared in fats and oils that do not turn toxic.

Oils such as olive oil, avocado oil, ghee, coconut oil, macadamia oil, palm oil, lard, tallow and butter can be used depending on what else is happening in your body and life. Polyunsaturated vegetable oil such as cotton seed, canola, sunflower, peanut and soy should be avoided due to their ability to become inflammatory and damaging especially when heated.

Extra sugars should not be added to foods other than what is found naturally.

All diets should aim to be unrefined, that means that nutrients have not been taken out such as is the case with white breads and pastas.

Foods that are processed (aside from general traditional cooking methods) should be avoided as they are no longer what they started out as and could in fact be harmful.

One thing is for sure every single diet must consist of the nutrients we require to make our biochemical pathways work for these pathways run our mood, energy levels and many other important functions that our body does for us that we take for granted every day.

There is no one ‘perfect’ diet!

For centuries cultures around the world have shown us that they all eat different foods and modernization hasn’t changed this. All traditional diets have always been based on seasonal whole foods that are minimally processed. Weston A. Price looked carefully at these ancestral variations in food and found robust health in these traditional populations.

What may resolve one person’s health issues can make another’s worse. As we journey our way through working out what is and isn’t right for us to eat, know that others may be experimenting with various ways of eating and ploughing through information and what is right for them may not be for you.

Have fun and enjoy the journey 🙂

For some of our NHM recipes click here

If you are needing a quick 7 day diet reset plan have a look at our ‘7 Day Reset’ quickstart guide here.

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Eat some more collagen and organ meat

Do I consume as much collagen and even organ meat as I should?

No I don’t but I have been adding a tablespoon or 2 of collagen (hydrolysate version is best) into my daily diet and I do like a bit of fried liver with thyme and onions or pate but just not as regularly as I really should.

Organ meats just have such high nutrient value they are invaluable. They are natures vitamin, mineral and nutrient punch. Things like vitamins B12, A, D & K, folate, choline, iron and Coenzyme Q-10.

Different versions of Carnivore Diets

Ok, back to CARNIVORE.

It has been around for quite a while but the last couple years it has really been gaining a ground swell of popularity.


It seems people are literally fixing or reversing long term chronic illnesses and on the way also gaining such vibrant health and people like Amber O’Hearn, Jordan and Mikhalia Peterson, Dr Shawn Baker breaking world records to boot and the folk at Paleomedicina.

Please note they actually all have their own way of carnivore dieting that work for them.

So never ever one diet for all!

Are there risks?

I know what you will be saying – we need plants in that our diet? What about fibre? What about feeding our gut bacteria? What about all the nutrients we need that we get from plants? What about red meat and bowel cancer?

These are important questions and we don’t have all the answers yet but there are signs of N=1 examples and multiple N = 1s showing tremendous benefits. Another way of saying this is, we don't have a scientific published clinical trial but, anecdotally 1000s of people as finding life changing health outcomes. Also people like Belinda and Dr Gary Fetke have highlighted information about where our current dietary paradigms and dogmas appear to have originated from here and here and also here.

Interestingly there are also numerous case reports of people eating nothing but meat for months to decades who suffer no apparent nutrient deficiencies.

When you consider the reverse and ask – is there any 1 singular plant food that when not supplemented in any way could sustain life for weeks to decades and show no clinical signs of deficiency?

The answer is an absolute - "NO there are is not a plant food that could do the same" as deficiencies are guaranteed, so interesting things to ponder.

Diet does change our gut microbiome and fermentable fibre is conventional thought of as being a key ingredient for healthy bacteria. Our gut bacteria usually need indigestible, fermentable plant fibre to eat and live.  Some animal based foods, such as collagen, are also thought to feed our gut bacteria, so its an evolving space for now.

As Maria points out a diet such as carnivore (animal only, mostly meat based) can change our gut microbiome, in part by reducing bacteria digestible fibre therefore potentially reducing bacterial numbers and this in some cases may well be the reason for the benefits.

The devil may be in the details - poor gut health (leaky gut) and bacterial composition (dysbiosis or pathogens) may mean great results (especially for those with allergies and autoimmune conditions) with low fermentable fibre carnivore diet. but this may not be optimal for all of us.

Another concept is the increased diversity of our gut microbiome. Increased diversity is conventional thought of as beneficial and gives us a more robust health but again details may matter, as above, and there are a few reports of diversity actually going up on a carnivore diet, so go figure!

This also means that a carnivore diet may not be optimal for all of us and might only mean that if you can't tolerate fibre or plant based foods you may be better off on a animal based  approach used as a therapeutic tool.

Something else that not many people talk about is a real and important risk of social isolation, this can include any highly restrictive eating pattern including plant based diets such veganism. As humans we need social interaction and contact for optimal health

So for some using a carnivore like diet in the short term may provide a perfect, yet extreme, reset. It can be used as a tool with a reintroduction of some plants foods when tolerated and this gives us convenience, flexibility, social interaction, antioxidants and an increased gut microbiome again with all the possible health benefits too. Mikhalia Peterson, who we mentioned above, actually does not enjoy her all meat restriction but continues to eat this way from necessity and continues to trial eating some plant foods provided she does not react.

The need to tweak and change

Here is what I will tell you – if you are chronically ill don’t keep pushing the ‘healthy’ diet whatever that is – vegan, vegetarian, paleo, keto, high fermented foods etc you need to rethink and change and try a different approach or sometimes just a small tweak may be needed.

Albert Einstein is quoted as saying “The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different outcome” and that is the whole point nothing is perfect and things need to change sometimes, so that is where we also come in to help and support you in finding something that works for you specifically.

Here is the punch line though – we (Maria, yes vego Maria, myself, one of he other clinic practitioners and a couple loony friends are going to do a month of eating only meat, water and salt - so yes all meat , just to see for ourselves what it feels like. Longer may be better but we thought we will see what a short trial does in our lives.

Stayed tuned for an up date as we are also taking pre and post diet pathology blood testing to also get an objective measure of what happens to our biochemistry.

All the best

Tim - Nutritional Medicine Specialist

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